Harbin (哈尔滨) (also seen as Ha’rbin or Haerbin) is the capital of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China. Harbin hosts the Snow and Ice Festivals each winter. Historically, the city has had a lot of Russian influence, in particular after the Russian Civil War of 1918, when White (Monarchist) refugees escaped the newly formed Soviet Union. The influence remains clearly visible in the building styles and foods. The city was founded in 1897 as a camp for Russian engineers surveying the Trans-Siberian Railway. Labor demands brought in a collection of outcasts from across Russia, Poland and even from within Manchuria. The city eventually was captured by the Japanese during World War II and later captured by the Chinese in 1946. Once nothing more than a Russian-built outpost of the railway, Harbin has managed to become a major player in her own right as well as capital of Heilongjiang Province.

Northeastern China was originally built up as an industrial center using pre-existing Soviet and Japanese factories. By the 1980s these outdated and inefficient factories could not keep up. In November 2005 there was a major benzyne chemical pollution spill on the Songhua river stretching over 80 km and reached China–Russia border, leading to a shutdown of Harbin’s water supply for months, forcing donations of bottled water to be trucked into Harbin from all over China (we donated 800 large bottles of water).

Climate

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg. high
°C (°F)
−12.5
(9.5)
−7.2
(19)
2.3
(36.1)
13.7
(56.7)
21.3
(70.3)
26.1
(79)
27.9
(82.2)
26.3
(79.3)
20.7
(69.3)
11.7
(53.1)
−0.1
(31.8)
−9.4
(15.1)
Avg. low
°C (°F)
−24.1
(−11.4)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−9.7
(14.5)
0.4
(32.7)
7.9
(46.2)
14.5
(58.1)
18.3
(64.9)
16.2
(61.2)
8.7
(47.7)
0.1
(32.2)
−10.1
(13.8)
−19.8
(−3.6)
Avg. rain
mm (inches)
3.4
(0.13)
5.3
(0.20)
9.7
(0.38)
18.4
(0.72)
40.4
(1.59)
84.4
(3.32)
142.7
(5.61)
121.2
(4.77)
57.6
(2.26)
25.9
(1.02)
9.6
(0.37)
5.8
(0.22)

Harbin is infamous for its very cold winters — it is at the same latitude as Montreal, and winter temperatures as low as -38°C (-36°F) with a few weeks reaching low 30s, while parts of winter averages a chilly -17°C (°1F) have been recorded. Bring more clothes than you will think you will need so that you can layer.  The winter can become dreary if you are a long-term resident, as the entire city uses coal for heat the air quality rapidly decreases during these months.

Harbin can be a great place to visit in the summer. The weather is cool and it seems to be perpetually breezy, and most of Harbin’s streets are lined with trees. Because the city is so cold all winter, life almost explodes and people crowd the streets until late at night eating kabobs, playing poker, and drinking Hapi (Harbin Beer). This is a great escape from the heat of Beijing. A trip up to the border regions this time of year would be nice as well.

Festivals

Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival (冰雪大世界) By far Harbin’s biggest claim to fame is famous for massive and beautifully carved sculptures of snow while the latter is famous for large ice buildings and statues constructed with lights inside that make them glow. January 5th, lasts from until about end of February when warm weather melts the ice (exact dates vary). These two-month-long events cover Chinese Spring Festival and Lantern Festival within the duration. While smaller ice and snow lanterns can be found all over the city, there are 3 major sites with large scale lanterns being displayed:

  • Sun Island International Snow Sculpture Art Fair (太阳岛国际雪雕艺术博览会), Located on Sun Island, northside of the river (Just a few steps from the Sun Island gondola station or just cross the frozen river by feet). 8am-5pm. Beautifully carved snow sculptures, massive dimensions. All other activities in the Park are extra. Admission ~ RMB 240.
  • Ice and Snow World (冰雪大世界), Northside of the river, west from Sun Island. 9am-9:30pm. Large buildings and sculptures made of ice. Best viewed after sunset. Admission ~ RMB 300 (or ~ RMB 150 before 12:00pm).
  • Ice Festival, Zhaolin Park (冰雪游园会, 兆麟公园), Located in the city center at Zhaolin Park, southside of the river. 1:30pm-9:30pm. Rather small lanterns compared to the other two main festivals. Best viewed after dusk. Admission ~ RMB 200.

International Beer Festival (哈尔滨国际啤酒节). Held in late August of every year, a whole public square is cordoned off and there are stages that host music concerts, dance contests. Most of the beer drunk is the local Harbin brew, but there is a tent for international beers. .

Summer Music Festival (哈尔滨之夏音乐节). Held every two years in July, this festival is organized by the city and brings in Chinese bands for free concerts held in the city square.

Sightseeing

  • Russian Buildings. Harbin’s old quarter which covers a wide area of the city near the Songhua River is still today mostly made up of buildings that were constructed by the Russians at the turn of the 19th century. Most of them are built in baroque or byzantine style with spires and cupolas and interesting shades of yellow, white, green, or red. While St. Sophia is known as the main architectural attraction to the city, areas of the city such as Harbin’s old quarter are made up of buildings that have been left untouched since the Russians left. While most of these streets are fairly decrepit and in need of repair, at least the area has been free from the wrecking ball like many other historical districts in China. Only due to the fact that Harbin has yet to attract the world’s investment.
  • Zhongyang Pedestrian Street (中央大街) – Central Avenue, runs from Jingwei Jie to Stalin Park at the river. Pretty much closes by 10pm (weekend nights included). This cobblestone lined street is a pedestrian only street is 1.4-km long and is a veritable museum of European architectural styles, including Baroque and Byzantine facades, Jewish, Russian, French and Japanese shops (and restaurants) that intermingle with American snack food outlets (Mcdonalds and KFC and a Chinese owned “American Bar”). In winter, you can take a dog sledge or horse sledge ride. It is the prettiest site in Harbin as far as the city itself is concerned, however, if you go mid-day during the weekend be prepared to push through the crowds.
  • Flood Control Monument (防洪胜利纪念塔) is at the riverside end of the Zhongyang Dajie built to commemorate the several floods of the Songhua River.
  • Stalin Park (斯大林公园), runs parallel to the Songhua River is a long tree covered walkway that stretches the city-side banks of the Songhua river.
  • St. Sophia Cathedral (圣索非亚教堂) in Daoli District on the corner of Zhaolin Street and Toulong Street is one of the few still standing Orthodox churches in the city. It is now converted into the Harbin Museum of Architecture. Inside there are exhibitions of many photographs from old times.
  • Jewish New Synagogue (哈尔滨犹太新会堂), 162 Jing Wei Jie. Has been restored and contains an impressive collection detailing the history of Jews in Harbin. There were 20,000 at one point and the museum is well worth a visit. Further up Tong Jiang Jie is the old synagogue that is now a hotel and cafe, with the old Jewish school next door – both worth a look at from the outside. Admission ~ RMB 25.
  • Unit 731 Museum (侵华日军地731部队遗址) is a grim reminder of what happened during the Japanese occupation to over 2,000 prisoners of war. The museum, located in the suburbs, tells the story of these individuals although its displays are limited.  Closes at 4om (last entry is at 3pm), is closed from 11am-1pm for lunch and the museum is completely closed on Mondays.
  • Siberian Tiger Preserve (老虎公园), This is without a doubt Harbin’s “must see”. Not for the faint hearted or obsessive animal lovers. There are literally hundreds of tigers in multiple huge pens. For just ¥70 you can ride in an open bus with metal caging around it. The ride is about an hour long and while on the bus you can purchase strips of meat (RMB 10) to hand feed the tigers, or upgrade the tiger food too live chickens (RMB 40), pheasants (RMB 100), ducks (RMB 100).  Tiger Preserve Admission ~ RMB 70.  It’s ~ RMB 40 taxi ride from the city (don’t have the taxi wait for you, you will always be able to find a ride home).
  • Zhaolin Park (兆麟公园) during the winter this park houses ice sculptures for the festivals, but during the off season, it is a pleasant stroll as well
  • Dragon TV Tower (龙塔) is the tallest steel structure in northeastern Asia. There is a revolving restaurant on top and views of the city. You can walk outside at the top and even strap on a harness for a thrill.
  • Old Quarter. A section of the city just west of Zhongyang pedestrian street is still dominated by Russian buildings built around the turn of the century. Not well maintained but an interesting walk and you can maybe find Russian antiques in some of the thrift stores.
  • Grape Kingdom (葡萄王国), (Near the Tiger Park). A live operating “organic farm” that has expansive grape and corn fields. In the fall you can enter the fields and pick as many fresh grapes as you want and watch how the Chinese process corn.
  • Gondola ride over Songhua River, access point is the Sun Island Park. A nice way to work your way back from Sun Island in a gondola car that takes you over the banks of the Songhua. Single ride ~ RMB 35-50.
  • Wen Miao Confucius Temple (文庙), WenMiao Street (文庙街) (right beside the campus of the Harbin Engineering University). This Confucius temple is the largest one of its kind in northeast China.
  • Temple of Heavenly Bliss (极乐寺) on Dongdazhi Street (东大直街) is in the eastern part of the city. Large and active Buddhist temple.
  • Heilongjiang Provincial Museum (黑龙江省博物馆) at 50 Hong Jun Jie. Built in 1922 and claims to have over 14,000 pieces of relics, but it’s not well kept.
  • Taoshan Hunting the hunting at Taoshan (Peach Mountains) is China’s first hunting ground opened to foreign tourists. Located at the western foot of the lesser Xing’an Mountains, it covers ~ 50,000 acres of vast virgin forest.  Game includes bears, red deer, wild boar, lynx, otters, weasels, snow rabbits and squirrels.  The hunting grounds are about 4-hour train ride north of Harbin.

Shopping

Imported Russian goods of all types and qualities are available around town. Look out for vodka, Russian dolls, and chocolate. Beyond this, the shopping is much like any other city in China.